Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona <p><img style="width: 200px; padding-right: 10px;" src="https://journal.unpar.ac.id/public/journals/8/cover_issue_393_en_US.jpg" align="left" /></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-weight: 400; text-align: justify;">Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional (JIHI) is a periodical international relations journal that is published twice a year (March-May and November-December). JIHI is managed and published by Parahyangan Center for International Studies (PACIS) study Center supervised by the International Relations Department and funded by Universitas Katolik Parahyangan. This journal is nationally accredited by the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (RISTEKDIKTI), <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1b2nKoCWZtieZqMIBwKtzVYYmUqu0sHWH/view?usp=sharing">No. 3/E/KPT/2019</a> (January 14, 2019) in SINTA 2 level (Science and Technology Index). JIHI has been assigned with DOI from Crossreff and in the <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2406-8748?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22terms%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%5B%222614-2562%22%2C%222406-8748%22%5D%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22size%22%3A100%2C%22sort%22%3A%5B%7B%22created_date%22%3A%7B%22order%22%3A%22desc%22%7D%7D%5D%2C%22_source%22%3A%7B%7D%2C%22track_total_hits%22%3Atrue%7D">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-weight: 400; text-align: justify;">JIHI can be a reference and literature source for academicians in the International Relations area as it consists of articles and research reports on International Relations Issues. Articles and research reports are written by academics who are experts in fields like Security Studies, International Political Economy, Regime, International Organization, Gender and International Relations, Diplomacy, Media and International Relations, etc.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-weight: 400; text-align: justify;">Articles that are received by the editorial board will pass through blind review process by External Reviewer. The articles that are considered appropriate to be published will be proceeding to the reviewing process. Articles that passed the reviewing process will be published online with the OJS system that can be accessed in our website and will be published in hardcopy too.</span></p> <div class="data"> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Journal title</td> <td width="70%">Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Initials</td> <td width="70%">JIHI</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Frequency</td> <td width="70%">2 issues per year</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Prefix DOI</td> <td width="70%"><a title="crossref" href="https://search.crossref.org/?from_ui=&amp;q=2406-8748" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.26593 <img src="https://i.ibb.co/T4xZdG6/crossref3.png" alt="crossref3" border="0" /> </a></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Online ISSN</td> <td width="70%"><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2406-8748" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2406-8748</a></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Print ISSN</td> <td width="70%"><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2614-2562" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2614-2562</a></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Editor in Chief</td> <td width="70%">Angguntari Ceria Sari [<a href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=57205750108"><img src="https://image.ibb.co/i6QzrJ/Scopus_type_logo.jpg" alt="Scopus_type_logo" border="0" /></a>]</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Publisher</td> <td width="70%">Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Indonesia</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%">Citation analysis</td> <td width="70%"><a href="https://www.scopus.com/results/results.uri?sort=plf-f&amp;src=dm&amp;st1=Jurnal+Ilmiah+Hubungan+Internasional&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=bc6b876e5ac005574fc5d88aa89e4656&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=cl&amp;cluster=scoexactsrctitle%2c%22Jurnal+Ilmiah+Hubungan+Internasional%22%2ct&amp;sl=41&amp;s=ALL%28Jurnal+Ilmiah+Hubungan+Internasional%29&amp;cl=t&amp;offset=1&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;ss=plf-f&amp;ws=r-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;cs=r-f&amp;cc=10&amp;txGid=f75c13e42b8901cd99bdd491d2541af7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>, <a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/detail?id=1297" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sinta</a>, <a href="https://scholar.google.co.id/citations?user=3bc0yLoAAAAJ&amp;hl=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> Parahyangan Center for International Studies en-US Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional 2614-2562 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This journal uses <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons license (CC BY)</a>. We allow readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The author must be aware that the article copyrights will be fully transferred to Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional only if the article is accepted to be published in the journal through signing of the Copyrights Transfer Agreement. Authors are allowed to resend their manuscript to another journal or intentionally withdraw the manuscript only if both parties (JIHI and Authors) have agreed on the related issue. Once the manuscript has been published, authors are allowed to use their published article under Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional copyrights.</span></p> Keterkaitan Kepentingan Indonesia dalam Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Pengetahuan dan Transformasi Identitas UMKM oleh Hyperlocal Tokopedia https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/5354 <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Covid-19 pandemic has become a concern for all governments globally because it can affect the economy. In Indonesia, one of the government's focuses is how to solve problems related to MSMEs facing the threat of bankruptcy and the government's choice is to cooperate with e-commerce through hyperlocal. Hyperlocal for some researchers has the effect of changing the structure of cooperation and the logic of business organizations. However, the author himself argues that hyperlocal issues also have a role in identity transformation. This is based on the findings of several previous studies, that hyperlocal communication media influences the distribution of culture and the identity of certain community groups. By using the analytical framework of post-Fordism and constructivism, the author finds that Hyperlocal Tokopedia have influenced the identity of MSMEs in understanding "who am I?" and "what will I do?". In addition, the interaction between Tokopedia and MSMEs, which initially had different identities, showed the last optimistic result. This shows that the interaction between identities in constructivism can be intentional by external actors. While related to post-Fordism, the results of this study only strengthen that the transformation of economic society is not economic, political, and cultural. But there is also a transformation of understanding of themselves.</span></em></p> <p><br /><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Hyperlocal; Constructivism; Post-Fordism; Knowledge-Economy; Economic Globalization</span></em></p> Sabda Ningsih Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 1 18 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.5354.1-18 The Development of Mass media in International Relations: In case of Al-Jazeera Effects in Middle East https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/3825 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The international network has a very important role in strengthening the solidarity and unity of the masses, in spreading information to the community by creating virtual communities. Al-Jazeera as one of the most reputable media outlets in the international arena and have considerable influence in society. They have a vital role in raising awareness to the people in case of religion, culture and issues in the world. In addition, more rapid and accessible information in the global media has been supported by information among countries that have changed the politics of the authorities. mass media in international relations that grow so fast recently by knowing that the media and politics are related each others with sharing the mutual benefit to each other. The author discusses Al- Jazeera achievements in changing and growing people's opinions on politics, the media as a vehicle for community empowerment, and more. By producing new concepts through information and news that raise awareness of the Middle East community, the region's unequal social and political conditions, and the Middle East's position. In the Middle East, things are changing, and people are becoming more aware of the value of freedom and democracy.</span></p> <p><strong>Keywords : </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">Development; Mass Media; Al-Jazeera; Effect</span></p> Muhammad Pambudi Prakoso Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 19 29 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.3825.19-29 Pengaruh Kebijakan Belt and Road Initiative Tiongkok terhadap Stabilitas Sub-Kompleks Keamanan Asia Tenggara https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/5788 <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research aims to analyze the impact of China’s Belt and Road Initiative policy on the stability of the Southeast Asia sub-regional security complex. As an analytical tool, we use the regional security complex theory which is focused on social construction variables. The results found that China used BRI as a desecuritization tool that affected the dynamics of social construction in the region. By leveraging economic and development cooperation, China seeks to eliminate threat perceptions (securitization) by forming a cooperative image towards Southeast Asian countries. The refinement in China's image can be seen from the changing pattern of alliances in the region, where countries that were previously close to the United States are now starting to show a tendency towards Beijing. In fact, Thailand and the Philippines which are Washington's closest allies in the region also show a similar trend. Moreover, we see that China's desecuritization efforts will affect ASEAN's collective ability to respond to the disputes in SCS. Previously, there were differences of opinion between member countries regarding the steps and mechanisms used to respond to China's maneuvers in SCS. Some countries show strong resistance, but some countries tend to be weak or even side with China. The existence of BRI has the potential to encourage the consolidation of attitudes among member countries. The consolidation refers to the weakening of ASEAN's attitude caused by the fading perception of securitization, and the increasingly cooperative member countries towards Beijing.</span></em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em><em>: </em></strong><em>Belt and Road Initiative</em>; <em>regional security complex</em>; <em>Southeast Asian sub-complex</em></p> Yusril Ihza Mahendra Ruli Inayah Ramadhoan Dedik Fitra Suhermanto Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 30 48 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.5788.30-48 Kepentingan Geopolitik Vietnam Bergabung dalam Keanggotaan Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Tahun 2018 https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/6104 <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Vietnam opposes the policies that have been made by upstream countries regarding dam construction projects in the Mekong River region which have brought huge losses to upstream countries. Vietnam, aware of the importance of water sources on the Mekong River, has finally rejoined the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (LMC). In this article, the author presents an analysis of Vietnam's geopolitical interests in joining LMC membership using the concept of Geopolitics. The method used is descriptive with data collection techniques through literature study and documentation. The research results show that Vietnam's geopolitical interest in joining LMC membership is influenced by two factors, namely domestic factors consisting of managing water resources and international factors consisting of China's economic power in regulating and suppressing countries through which the Mekong River flows. The LMC program focuses on 3+5, where 3 refers to the three pillars, namely political, economic and social security, and sustainable development and relations between people. Meanwhile, 5 refers to five priority areas of cooperation, namely connectivity, production capacity, cross-regional economy, water resources, agriculture and poverty alleviation. Realizing the importance of water resources for economic growth encouraged Vietnam at the second summit in 2018 to show itself to be one step more active in this cooperation than several LMC member countries.</span></em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">: Geopolitics; </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lancang-Mekong </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cooperation;</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Vietnam</span></p> Dian Trianita Lestari Eka Suaib Lisna Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 49 62 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.6104.49-62 Hostility vs. Reluctance: Implication of Nuclear Posture Adoption towards India's Bilateral Relations with Pakistan and China https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/6695 <p><em>This paper examines India's different nuclear posture adoption toward Pakistan and China. India has been developing its nuclear weapons to ensure its survival amidst ongoing tensions with Pakistan and China. However, India's relationship with China tends to be cooperative, while Pakistan tends to be conflictual. Theoretically, the mutual accumulation of nuclear power will increase tension and further deteriorate bilateral relations. Through posture optimization theory and Jervis' four worlds, this article qualitatively compares the two cases and its implication for their bilateral relations. The result shows that India's adoption of an assured retaliation posture that directly deters Pakistan affects their relationship to be hostile and leaves no possibilities for cooperation. On the contrary, the existence of the United States as India's strategic partner made China reluctant to be aggressive and opt for diplomatic settlements with India. India-Pakistani relations dynamics reflect Jervis's doubly dangerous world, while Sino-Indian relations reflect the second world unaffected by the accumulation of power, although there is an intense security dilemma.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> India; Pakistan; China; Nuclear Posture; Nuclear Policy</em></p> Kinanti Aristawidya Idil Syawfi Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 63 85 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.6695.63-85 The Trends of Legal Migration: Reasons of Indonesian Legal Migrants Settling in the Netherlands https://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasiona/article/view/7214 <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Indonesia has been one of the contributing countries in sending migrants to the Netherlands. The historical relations along with the large economic opportunities in the Netherlands play a part in the promotion of cross-border movement for Indonesians to the Netherlands. However, those are only one of many underlying reasons why Indonesians are willing to leave their home country to a more developed country. This article questions the reasons behind Indonesian legal migration in the Netherlands and looks into the trend of Indonesian migrants as the result of the fulfilment of human development embedded in education and employment policies and management in the Netherlands. The relationship between the two aspects and the Indonesian migration in the Netherlands is examined through the Theory of Human Development by Amartya Sen, specifically in regard to the improvement of human capabilities and freedom of choice. The authors found that a country that promotes human development is more favourable to live in. Thus, in this case, the education and employment policies and mechanisms of the Netherlands that are focusing on the fulfilment of freedom of choice and the improvement of human capabilities attract international migrants, particularly the Indonesians.</span></em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> the Netherlands; Indonesia; Legal Migrants; Migration</span></em></p> Nada Gavrila Wasisto Levina Charisa Pilongo Putu Agung Nara Indra Prima Satya Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 19 2 86 103 10.26593/jihi.v19i2.7214.86-103