• Roni Tua Parahyangan Catholic University



Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Experience, Storytelling


The corpus of academic literature on entrepreneurship is progressing rapidly, which could lead to negligence for classical ideas that may still be pertinent and contextually necessary to be developed. The unanswered topic of what attributes attach to an entrepreneur and give rise to the label "entrepreneur" may be advanced after scholars revisit earlier theories. This study is a re-examination of Albert Shapero's notion of the displaced entrepreneur and his classical theory of entrepreneurial event, both of which have been useful in understanding the transition and intention of individual entrepreneurship: an artshop owner, a maker and an exporter of creative products. This study uses a qualitative technique to compare the experiences of three Bali-based creative product entrepreneurs. This study produces findings, confirmation of the crucial importance of prior employment, the potential entrepreneur's place of employment, and a crucial step in partnership building. The conclusions have significance for both theoretical and practical formulations of relevant and contextualised entrepreneurship development strategies.


Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2014). National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. Research Policy, 43(3), 476-494. doi:doi:10.1016/j.respol.2013.08.016

Al-Dajani, H., Carter, S., Shaw, E., & Marlow, S. (2015). Entrepreneurship among the Displaced and Dispossessed: Exploring the Limits of Emancipatory Entrepreneuring. British Journal of Management, 26(4), 713-730. doi:

Aldrich, H., & Ruef, M. (2020). Scholars Should Study Everyday Entrepreneurs, Not Gazelles. Entrepreneur and Innovation Exchange. doi:10.32617/443-5e13408ab0321

Aldrich, H. E., Brumana, M., Campopiano, G., & Minola, T. (2021). Embedded but not asleep: Entrepreneurship and family business research in the 21st century. Journal of family business strategy, 12(1). doi:10.1016/j.jfbs.2020.100390

Aldrich, H. E., & Ruef, M. (2018). Unicorns, gazelles, and other distractions on the way to understanding real entrepreneurship in the United States. Academy of Management Perspectives, 32(4), 458-472. doi:10.5465/amp.2017.0123

Audretsch, D. (2012). Entrepreneurship research. Management decision, 50(5), 755-764. doi:10.1108/00251741211227384

Bichler, B. F., Kallmuenzer, A., Peters, M., Petry, T., & Clauss, T. (2021). Regional entrepreneurial ecosystems: how family firm embeddedness triggers ecosystem development. Review of managerial science. doi:10.1007/s11846-020-00434-9

Brattstrom, A., & Wennberg, K. (2022). The entrepreneurial story and its implications for research. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 46(6), 1443-1468.

Brockhaus, R. H. (1987). Entrepreneurial folklore. Journal of small business management, 25(3), 1.

Chapple, D., Pollock, N., & D'Adderio, L. (2022). From Pitching to Briefing: Extending entrepreneurial storytelling to new audiences. Organization Studies. doi:10.1177/01708406211024564

Clayton, P., Donegan, M., Feldman, M., Forbes, A., Lowe, N., & Polly, A. (2019). Local Prior Employment and Ecosystem Dynamics. Industrial & labor relations review, 72(5), 1182-1199. doi:10.1177/0019793919836756

De Montoya, M. L. (2000). entrepreneurship and culture; the case of freddy, the strawberry man. In R. Swedberg (Ed.), Entrepreneurship: the social science view. New York;Oxford;: Oxford University Press.

Dencker, J. C., Bacq, S., Gruber, M., & Haas, M. (2020). Reconceptualizing necessity entrepreneurship: a contextualized framework of entrepreneurial processes under the condition of basic needs. The Academy of Management Review, 46(1), 60-79. doi:10.5465/amr.2017.0471

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of management review, 14(4), 532-550.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of management journal, 50(1), 25-32.

Feiler, B. (2020a). How to master change. Psychology Today.

Feiler, B. (2020b). Life Is in the Transitions: Mastering Change at Any Age: Penguin press.

Garcia, M. C. D., & Welter, F. (2013). Gender identities and practices: Interpreting women entrepreneurs' narratives. International Small Business Journal, 31(4), 384-404. doi:10.1177/0266242611422829

Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of management review, 10(4), 696-706.

Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who Is an Entrepreneur?” Is the Wrong Question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 11-32. doi:10.1177/104225878801200401

Gartner, W. B. (2007). Entrepreneurial narrative and a science of the imagination. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(5), 613-627. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.10.003

Gartner, W. B. (2010). A new path to the waterfall: A narrative on a use of entrepreneurial narrative. International Small Business Journal, 28(1), 6-19. doi:10.1177/0266242609351448

Garud, R., & Giuliani, A. P. (2013). A narrative perspective on entrepreneurial opportunities. Academy of management review, 38(1), 157-160. doi:10.5465/amr.2012.0055

Gehman, J., Glaser, V. L., Eisenhardt, K. M., Gioia, D., Langley, A., & Corley, K. G. (2018). Finding theory–method fit: A comparison of three qualitative approaches to theory building. Journal of Management Inquiry, 27(3), 284-300.

Granovetter, M., & Action, E. (1985). The problem of embeddedness. American journal of sociology, 91(3), 481-510.

Huang, S., Pickernell, D., Battisti, M., Dann, Z., & Ekinsmyth, C. (2022). Disadvantaged Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: A Critical Literature Review and Introduction. In D. G. Pickernell, M. Battisti, Z. Dann, & C. Ekinsmyth (Eds.), Disadvantaged Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (Vol. 14, pp. 1-8): Emerald Publishing Limited.

Imas, J. M., Wilson, N., & Weston, A. (2012). Barefoot entrepreneurs. Organization, 19(5), 563-585. doi:10.1177/1350508412459996

Isenberg, D. J. (2012). Focus Entrepreneurship Policy on Scale-Up, Not Start-Up. Harvard Business Review, 21. doi:10.1177/0003603X16676162

Kallmuenzer, A., & Peters, M. (2017). Exploring entrepreneurial orientation in family firms: the relevance of social embeddedness in competition. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30. doi:10.1504/IJESB.2017.081436

Krueger Jr, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(3), 91-104.

Krueger, N. (2020). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs: 25 years on. Journal of the International Council for Small Business, 1(1), 52-55. doi:10.1080/26437015.2020.1714363

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5), 411-432. doi:

Loots, E., Neiva, M., Carvalho, L., & Lavanga, M. (2020). The entrepreneurial ecosystem of cultural and creative industries in Porto: A sub-ecosystem approach. Growth and change. doi:10.1111/grow.12434

Melin, E., Gaddefors, J., & Ferguson, R. (2022). The moral of the story: ‘populism’ and ‘activism’ in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 1-23. doi:10.1080/08985626.2022.2083690

Pret, T., & Cogan, A. (2019). Artisan entrepreneurship: a systematic literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 25(4), 592-614. doi:10.1108/IJEBR-03-2018-0178

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle (Vol. 46.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: a guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (4th ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226. doi:10.5465/AMR.2000.2791611

Shapero, A. (1975, 01/01). The Displaced, Uncomfortable Entrepreneur. Psychology Today, 9.

Shapero, A. (1984). The Entrepreneurial Event. In C. Kent, A. (Ed.), The Environment for Entrepreneurship (pp. 21-40). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimension of entrepreneurship. In C. Kent, A., D. Sexton, L., & K. Vesper, H. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp. 72-90). Eaglewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shepherd, D. A. (2015). Party On! A call for entrepreneurship research that is more interactive, activity based, cognitively hot, compassionate, and prosocial. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4), 489-507. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2015.02.001

Spilling, O. R. (1996). The entrepreneurial system: On entrepreneurship in the context of a mega-event. Journal of Business research, 36(1), 91-103.

Steyaert, C., & Katz, J. (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: geographical, discursive and social dimensions. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16(3), 179-196. doi:10.1080/0898562042000197135

Thompson, T. A., Purdy, J. M., & Ventresca, M. J. (2018). How entrepreneurial ecosystems take form: Evidence from social impact initiatives in Seattle. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), 96-116. doi:10.1002/sej.1285

Tregear, A. (2005). Lifestyle, growth, or community involvement? The balance of goals of UK artisan food producers. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 17(1), 1-15. doi:10.1080/08985620420002497777

Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (2000). ethnic entrepreneurs. In R. Swedberg (Ed.), Entrepreneurship: the social science view. New York;Oxford;: Oxford University Press.

Walsh, K. (2019). Prior employment as a causal mechanism within entrepreneurial ecosystems. Regional Studies, Regional Science, 6(1), 637-645. doi:10.1080/21681376.2019.1691047

Welter, F., Baker, T., & Wirsching, K. (2019). Three waves and counting: the rising tide of contextualization in entrepreneurship research. Small Business Economics, 52(2), 319-330. doi:10.1007/s11187-018-0094-5

Zanella, G., & Renard, S. (2022). Entrepreneurship Engagement in the Arts: The Role of Incubators and Social Media Influencers. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 30(03), 321-341. doi:10.1142/s0218495822500108