The Ethics of Transhumanism from the Perspective of Gilbert Ryle Monist Ethics: Ambiguities and Prospects


  • Mardohar Batu Bornok Simanjuntak Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
  • Andreas Doweng Bolo Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
  • Ambrosius Markus Loho Universitas Katolik de La Salle



transhumanism , monist ethics , ambiguities, extraction , abstraction


Transhumanism attempts to overcome human limitations through the use of technology, such as nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, and genetic modifications. In the monist ethical perspective, humans are considered complex material entities, and consciousness is understood as a product of the physical and chemical interactions in the brain with various other parts of the body. The problem is that with such artificial revolutions, ethical foundations based on corporeal limitations become irrelevant. Gilbert Ryle questions Platonistic dispositions that overly rely on reduction with the consequence of extractive knowledge rather than abstract knowledge. Plato's line of thought is then strengthened by Cartesian dualism, which, when applied in a monist perspective, can be reduced to an extraction of brain performance. Ryle proposes an abstraction that allows for the interaction between elements to form a unified understanding of the complex. Based on Ryle's thinking, a study of monist ethics can offer a thoughtful approach to constructing an ethical framework that aligns with the transhumanist era's revolution.


Aral, S. (2020). The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health and How We Must Adapt. Currency: Sidney.

Bostrom, N. (2014). Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Boyer, L. (2018). Robot in the Cubicle: What You Need to Know to Adapt and Succeed in the Automation Age. Prometheus: New York.

Chalmers, D. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Churchland, P. M. (1986). Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind-Brain. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Churchland, P. S. (2013). Touching a Nerve: The Self as Brain. W. W. Norton & Company: New York.

Churchland, P. S., & Churchland, P. M. (1998). On the Contrary: Critical Essays, 1987-1997. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Clark, A. (1997). Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Dennett, D. C. (1987). The Intentional Stance. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Dennett, D. C. (2017). From Bacteria to Bach and Back: The Evolution of Minds. W. W. Norton & Company: New York.

Fodor, J. A. (1983). The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Gallagher, S., & Zahavi, D. (2008). The Phenomenological Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science. Routledge: Abingdon.

Hackl, Lueth, Di Bartolo, (2022). Navigating the Metaverse: A Guide to Limitless Possibilities in a Web 3.0 World. John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey.

Harari, Y. N. (2015). Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow. Harper: New York.

Harari, Y. N. (2018). 21 Lessons for the 21st Century. Spiegel & Grau: New York.

King, B. & Petty, R. (2021). The Rise of Technosocialism: How Inequality, AI and Climate will Usher in a New World. Marshall Cavendish International: Singapore.

MacIntyre, A. (2007). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. University of Notre Dame Press: Indiana.

Malone, T. W. (2009). Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together. Little, Brown Spark: Massachusetts.

More, M., Vita-More, N., & Hughes, J. (Eds.). (2010). The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. Wiley-Blackwell: New Jersey.

Nagel, T. (1986). The View from Nowhere. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Newman & Blanchard (2019). Human/Machine: The Future of Our Friendship with Machines. Kogan Page: London.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2013). Political Emotions: Why Love Matters for Justice. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Harvard.

Ord, T. (2020). The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity. Bloomsbury Publishing: New York.

Parsa, (2013). “Telomerase: from Aging to Human Cancers”. Mehdipour, P. (editor). Springer: London.

Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Ryle, G. (1966). Plato's Progress. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Ryle, G. (1971). Collected Papers: Volume 1. Routledge: Abingdon

Ryle, G. (1971). Collected Papers: Volume 2. Routledge: Abingdon

Robinson, K. (2001). Out of Our Minds. Capstone Publishing Company: Sussex.

Sandberg, A., & Bostrom, N. (Eds.). (2011). Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap. Academic Press: Massachusetts.

Searle, J. R. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Sorgner, S.L. (2021). On Transhumanism. Pennsylvania University Press: Pennsylvania.

Singer, P. (1975). Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. Blackwell Publishing: Massachusetts.

Strogatz, S. H. (2019). Infinite Powers: How Calculus Reveals the Secrets of the Universe. Mariner Books: Boston.

Tegmark, M. (2017). Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Vintage: New York.




How to Cite

Simanjuntak, M. B. B., Doweng Bolo, A. ., & Loho, A. M. . (2023). The Ethics of Transhumanism from the Perspective of Gilbert Ryle Monist Ethics: Ambiguities and Prospects. Sapientia Humana: Jurnal Sosial Humaniora, 3(02), 66–73.




Most read articles by the same author(s)