HATE CRIMES DI INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERBANDINGAN HUKUM
This article discusses the deficiency of the Indonesian criminal law with regard to the criminalization of hate crimes. Taking into consideration the fact that Indonesia faces a high incidence of social conflict due to rising intolerance and discrimination targeting minority groups. The combination of (racial-ethnic-religious) discrimination and hatred against minority groups in most cases results in various forms of common crimes which generally is known as hate crimes. Using a comparative law method, by and between Indonesian criminal law and the criminal law of other countries experiencing hate crimes, the author highlights options for eradicating hate crimes. One important finding is the tendency of a number of countries to perceive hatred or prejudice which motivate the perpetrator of hate crimes as aggravating factor and not to as as separate substantive offence.
Adams D, Punishing Hate and Achieving Equality, Winter/Spring, Criminal Justice Ethics, 2005.
Bangstad S, Islamophobia in Norway: National Report 2015, dalam Enes Bayrakli dan Harid Hafez (eds), European Islamophobia Report 2015, SETA, Istanbul, 2016.
Chakraborti N and Garland J, Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses, Sage Publications, London, 2009.
Gerstenfeld P B., Hate Crimes, Causes, Controls and Controversies, 3rd ed, Sage Publications, California, 2013.
Grande I S, Hate Crime, Comparative Law Annotation, Groningen University, 2006.
Jacobs J B. and Potter K, Hate Crimes: Criminal Law & Identity Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
King R D, Hate Crimes: Perspectives on Offending and the Law dalam Marvin D. Krohn et al (eds), Handbook on Crime and Deviance, Springer, New York, 2012.
Perry B, In the Name of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes, Routledge, New York, 2001.
Bleich E, The Rise of Hate Speech and Hate Crime Laws in Libetal Democracies, Vol 37 No. 6, July, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2011.
Carlsmith K M. and Darley J M., Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment, Vol. 83, No. 2, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2002.
Glet A, The German Hate Crime Concept: An Account of the Classification and Registration of Bias-Motivated Offences and the Implementation of the Hate Crime Model into Germany’s Law Enforcement System, Internet Journal of Criminology, 2009.
Goodall K, Conceptualising ‘Racism’ in Criminal Law, Vol. 33 No 2 June, Legal Studies, 2013
Jacobs J B. dan Henry J, The Social Construction of Hate Crime Epidemic, Vol 86 No 2, The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 1996.
Mason G and Dyer A, A Negation of Australia’s Fundamental Values: Sentencing Prejudice-Motivated Crimes, Vol 36:871, Melbourne University Law Review, 2013.
Ahmad Zulfikar Fazli, “25 Kasus Intoleran Terjadi di Indonesia Sepanjang 2016”, metrotvnews, 5 Januari 2017, <http://news.metrotvnews.com/hukum/8N0YX4wb-25-kasus-intoleran-terjadi-di-indonesia-sepanjang-2016>
Grande I S, “Monitoring Hate Crime and Some Comparative Law Annotations”, artikel tidak dipublikasi, hlm. 13.<http://www.cep-probation.org/uploaded_files/Monitoring%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Heyder Affan dan Christine Franciska, “Pengusiran 1,000 eks anggota Gafatar merupakan Pelanggaran,” BBC Indonesia, 21 Januari 2016 <http://www.bbc.com/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2016/01/160120_indonesia_pengusiran_gafatar>
Isyana Artharini, “Alasan Pembubaran Acara Natal di Bandung Mengada-Ada”, BBC Indonesia, 8 Desember 2016 <http://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-38233417>
Mason G, “Hate Crime Laws in Australia: Are they achieving their goals?,” Sentencing Conference 2010, Canberra 6&7 Februari 2010.
U.S. Code § 249 - Hate crime acts <https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/249>
The 190th General Court of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts <https://malegislature.gov/Laws/GeneralLaws/PartI/TitleII/Chapter22C/Section32>
Tanpa nama, “Kronologi Pengusiran Jemaat Ahmadiyah diBangka”, TEMPO.CO, 9 Februari 2016, <https://m.tempo.co/read/news/2016/02/09/058743223/ini-kronologi-pengusiran-jemaat-ahmadiyah-di-bangka>
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
The Journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright and to retian publishing rights without restrictions.