• Ida Susanti Faculty of Law, Parahyangan Catholic University




local staff; employment agreement; imunity; court jurisdiction


The employment agreement between local staff and Representatives of Foreign Countries (RFC) is very problematic, because many people believe that a RFC has the immunity to be sued before the court where the RFC is located. Applicability of this immunity to employment agreement’s disputes between the local staff and the RFC is debatable. This paper will examine restrictions on the application of the principle of immunity in employment agreements, and how these exemptions impact legal protection for local staff. Therefore, using the normative/doctrinal approach, this paper will discuss the meaning of the immunity principle and its application in the employment relationship between RFC and local staff; the jurisdiction of the local court to resolve disputes between local staff and the RFC; and the impact of the limitation of the principle of immunity to the legal protection that will be provided to local staff with RFCs. Those will be seen both in regulations, court decision and opinio-doctorum. Finally, this paper will recommend parameters for determining the criteria to limit the application of the immunity principle in the employment agreement.



Hazel Fox dan Phillippa Webb, The Law of State Immunity, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 2002.

Ida Susanti, The Conflict Rules on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers: A Proposition for Indonesia and ASEAN, Hephaestus Publishers – Netherlands, 2008, hal 95.

ILO, Digest of decisions and principles of the Freedom of Association Committee, fourth edition, 1996.

Istvản Szảszy, International Labour Law, A Comparative Survey of Conflict Rules affecting Labour Legislation and Regulations. A.W. Sijthoff, Leiden, 1968.

Johan Meeusen, Marta Pertegás and Gert Straetmans (Editors), Enforcement of International Contract in the European Union, Convergence and Divergence between Brussels I and Rome I. Antwerp, Oxford New York, Intersentia, 2004.

Lisa Rodgers, State immunity and employment relationships before the European Court of Human Rights. ERA Forum (2019), Springer, 2019.

Lori Fisler Damrosch et al., International Law (4th edn) West Academic Publishing, 2004.

Maurice V. Polak, “Laborum Dulce Lenimen”? Jurisdiction and Choice of Law Aspects of Employment Contracts’. Ditemukan di: Johan Meeusen, Marta Pertegás and Gert Straetmans (Editors), Enforcement of International Contract in the European Union, Convergence and Divergence between Brussels I and Rome I. Antwerp, Oxford New York, Intersentia, 2004.

Ulla Liukkunen, The Role of Mandatory Rules in International Labour Law, a Comparative Study in the Conflict of Laws. Talentum, Helsinki, 2004.


Antonio Cassese, When May Senior State Officials be Tried for International Crimes? Some Comments on the Congo v. Belgium Case, 13 EUR. J. INT‟L L. 853, 869 (2002).

Bernard Baudry dan Virgile Chassagnon, The Analysis of Employment Relationship in Contract Economic Theories: a Critical Review Based on the Nature of American and French Labor Laws. Open Editions Journal, issues 27, 2018.

Beth Stephens, The Modern Common Law of Foreign Official Immunity.79 Fordham Law Review, 2011.

Gamel Moursi Badr, State Immunity: An Analytic and Prognostic View, 65 I.L.R. 39 (1984).

Georges Cavalier & Robert Upex. The Concept of Employment Contract in European Union Private Law. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, (2006) 55(3).

International Organization of Employers, ‘The ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work”. IOE Position Paper, 2006.

Jasper Finke, Sovereign Immunity: Rule, Comity or Something Else? The European Journal of International Law Vol. 21 no. 4 © EJIL 2011.

Joseph Dellapenna, The Law of State Immunity. The American Journal of International Law · July 2005.

Katherine V.W. Stone, The New Psychological Contract: Implications of the Changing Workplace for Labour and Employment Law. 48 UCLA Law Review (2001).

Kevin M. Clemont, Governing Law on Forum Selection Agreements. 66 Hastings Law Journal 643 (2015).

Marcin Czerwiński, The Law Applicable to Employment Contracts under the Rome I-Regulation. Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review, 2015/5.

Paschal Oguno, The Concept of State Immunity under International Law: An Overview. International Journal of Law ISSN: 2455-2194, RJIF 5.12, Volume 2; Issue 5; September 2016.

Richard L. Garnett, The Perils of Working for a Foreign Government: Foreign Sovereign Immunity and Employment, 29 CAL. W. INT’L L. J. 133 (1998).

Richard L. Garnett, Precarious Employment? Varying Approaches to Foreign Sovereign Immunity in Labor Disputes. The International Lawyer, Vol 51 No. 1 (2018).

Sacha Prechal, Equality of Treatment, Non-Discrimination and Social Policy: Achievement in Three Themes. [2004] Common Market Law Review, Netherlands, Vol 41, 2004.

Steven Simpson, ‘Enforcement of Human Rights through ILO Machinery’. The Human Rights Brief, 1995.

Turan Kayaoglu, The Extenetion of Westphalian Sovereignty: State Building and the Abolition of Extraterritoriality. International Studies Quarterly, 2007, 51.

Yilin Ding, Absolute, Restrictive, or Something More: Did Beijing Choose the Right Type of Sovereign Immunity for Hong Kong? Emory International Law Review, Vol 26, 2012.

Zhacary Douglas, State Immunity for the Acts of State Officials. The British Yearbook of International Law, (2012) Vol 82 No. 1.


Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia, Kedutaan/Konsulat, 26 Maret, 2019. Diakses dari: https://kemlu.go.id/portal/id/kedutaan.

Majalah Tempo, Habis Pecat Terbitlah Gugat. Jakarta, 18 Februari 2018. Diakses dari: https://majalah.tempo.co/read/internasional/154955/habis-pecat-terbitlah-gugat

Konvensi dan Perundang-undangan:

Konvensi PBB:

United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property.

United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities.

The ILO Constitution and Philadelphia Declaration.


UU No. 13 tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan.

PP Nomor 78 tahun 2015 tentang Pengupahan.

Amerika Serikat:

Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (1976).


Biosecurity Act 2015.

Uni Eropa:

The Treaty on European Union.

Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters.

Regulation (EC) No 593/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (Rome I), pasal 8 ayat (2).

Putusan Pengadilan:


Putusan MA No. 673K / Pdt.Sus / 2012 (Indra Taufik Djafar vs Konsulat AS di Medan dan Kedutaan Besar AS di Jakarta).

Putusan MA No. 376 K/Pdt.Sus-PHI/2013 (Kedutaan Besar Brazil vs Luis Pareira).

Putusan MA No. 696 K/Pdt.Sus-PHI/2016 (Maria Itania Setiawan dan Anggraini Ekasari. vs. Kedutaan Besar Republik Suriname).

International Court of Justice:

Judgment of Jan. 17, 1973 (Spain c. S.A. de l’Hotel George V) (Cass. Civ. Ire),).

Amerika Serikat:

Holden v. Canadian Consulate, 92 F.3d 918 (9th Cir. 1996).

Ferdman v. Consulate Gen. of Isr., 997 F. Supp. 1051 (N.D. Ill. 1998).


All E.R. 97, R., ex parte Pinochet v Bartle and ors, Appeal, [1999] UKHL 17, [2000] 1 AC 147, [1999] 2 All ER 97, [1999] 2 WLR 827, (1999) 38(3) ILM 581, (2002) 119 ILR 135, ILDC 1736 (UK 1999), 24th March 1999, United Kingdom; House of Lords [HL].

I° Congreso Del Partido, House of Lords, 16 July 1981, 64 (1983) ILR 154, at 178, para. 527.


Putusan Kasus No. C 154/11 antara Ahmed Mahamdia v Algeria.