‘negative right’; ‘positive right’; human rights; right to development; comparative constitutional law;


This paper examines the conceptual dichotomy between ‘negative right’ and ‘positive right’ in the current discourse of human rights. The dichotomy has been embedded due to the historical description of generations of human rights, encompassing the civil and political rights that have liberalism influences, to the economic, social, and cultural rights that have socialist influences, and the last generation of rights being the collective and solidarity rights. This paper analyses the dichotomy from the standpoint of the right to development, with some pivotal approaches, including conceptual, case law, and comparative constitutional law approaches. It concludes that the dichotomy can only be used in a teaching and pedagogical setting of human rights, but the dichotomy cannot sustain the test in theoretical-conceptual and practical analyses.

Author Biography

Mirza Satria Buana, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Bagian Hukum Tata Negara

Lektor Kepala/IIId



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Sulistyowati Irianto, Putusan Hakim di Antara Keadilan Hukum dan Keadilan Sosial, Kompas, 28 Februari 2023.