Trade Controversy Amidst Tobacco Control Provisions: Dynamics on the Establishment of U.S Tobacco Control Act 2009
This article examines the dynamics on the establishment of a health policy that U.S suddenly issued, so-called Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). Some provisions of this act having something to do with trade were assumed controversial policy due to two reasons. First, it banned the circulations of specific flavors in cigarettes but allowed menthol-containing tobacco products. Second, this act involved tobacco industry participation on Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC). In short, this article addresses interest groups consisting of tobacco companies and civil society groups influencing U.S government to take action regarding ratification of World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). They both have contradicting interests and race against each other to influence government through varied means. I argue that this opposing domestic dynamics influences U.S government to issue FSPTCA that contained two controversies and adopted provisions of WHO FCTC as win-win solution.
Keywords: tobacco control; interest groups; ratification; influence; win-win solution.
Artikel ini membahas mengenai dinamika pembentukan sebuah kebijakan atau undang-undang kesehatan Amerika, FSPTCA yang dikeluarkan secara mendadak. Beberapa ketentuan dari undang-undang ini berkaitan dengan perdagangan dan diasumsikan sebagai kebijakan yang kontroversial karena dua alasan. Pertama, undang-undang ini melarang peredaran rokok beraroma rasa namun mengizinkan produk tembakau yang mengandung mentol. Kedua, undang-undang ini melibatkan partisipasi industri tembakau dalam sebuah kelompok para penasehat ilmiah produk tembakau. Singkatnya, artikel ini merujuk pada kelompok kepentingan yaitu perusahaan-perusahaan rokok dan kelompok masyarakat sipil yang mempengaruhi pemerintah dalam meratifikasi konvensi kerangka kontrol tembakau dari WHO. Mereka memiliki kepentingan yang saling bertentangan dan saling berlomba untuk mempengaruhi pemerintah Amerika melalui berbagai macam cara. Akhirnya, penulis beragumen bahwa dinamika domestik yang saling bertentangan mempengaruhi pemerintah AS untuk mengeluarkan kebijakan FSPTCA yang memuat dua kontroversi dan mengadopsi ketentuan WHO FCTC dengan dua kontroversinya sebagai win-win solution.
Kata Kunci: kontrol tembakau; kelompok kepentingan; ratifikasi; mempengaruhi; win-win solution.
Collin, J. ‘Tobacco Politics,’ Palgrave Development, vol.47, issue 2, 2004, p. 96.
Givel, M.S. & Glantz, S.A. ‘Tobacco Lobby Political Influence on US State Legislatures in the 1990s,’ British Medical Journal, vol.10, Issue 2, no.124, 2001. p.3.
Liang, B.A., Pierce, J.P. Huber L. & Bostic, C. ‘Call to Action: Promoting Domestic and Global Tobacco Control by Ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the United States,’ PLOS Medicine, vol.11, issue.5, 2014, p.1.
Sherrick, J.E.M. Food, Drugs, and Cigarettes: The Influence of Politics on FDARegulations, University of Georgia, Atlanta, 2012, p.49-57.
Putnam, R.D.‘Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Game,’ International Organization MIT, vol. 42, Issue. 3, 1988, p.436.
‘2009-2010: Inaugural Year in Review,’ Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products, 2010, p.3, <http://www.fda.gov/downloads/TobaccoProducts/NewsEvents/UCM216374.pdf> [Accessed 25 August 2016].
‘About the FSPTCA,’ National Institute of Health, 2010, <https://prevention.nih.gov/tobacco-regulatory-science-program/about-the-FSPTCA> [Accessed 1 August 2016].
‘Altria Group and Its Tobacco Operating Companies Actively Supported Legislation that Gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products,’ Altria Group, <http://www.altria.com/About-Altria/Government-Affairs/programs-practices/Legislative-Issues/Pages/Federal-Regulation-of-Tobacco.aspx> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
‘American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network Launches Push for Ratification of Landmark Global Public Health Treaty,’ American Cancer Society, 12 July 2006, <http://www.acscan.org/mediacenter/view/id/61/> [Accessed 20 September 2016]
‘Candy and Fruit Flavored Cigarettes Now Illegal in United States; Step is First Under New Tobacco Law,’ Food and Drug Administration, 2009, <http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm183211.htm> [Accessed 9 August 2016].
‘China, World’s Largest Cigarette Market, Ratifies Tobacco Treaty; U.S. Still On the Sidelines Because of Failure to Ratify’, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, 29 August 2005, <http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press_releases/post/id_0866> [Accessed 20 September 2016].
‘District Court Denies Preliminary Injunction in a Case Challenging the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act,’ Food and Drug Administration, <http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2009/11/district-court-denies-preliminary-injunction-in-a-case-challenging-the-family-smoking-prevention-and.html> [Accessed 27 September 2016].
‘FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Common Sense Law to Protect Kids and Save Lives,’ Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, <https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0352.pdf> [Accessed 28 September 2016].
‘Follow-Up Implementation of Resolutions and Report Recommendations: AMA House of Delegates Annual Meeting - June 14-19, 2003,’ American Medical Association, 2003, <http://www.ama-assn.org/meetings/public/interim05/i04status.doc> [Accessed 21 September 2016].
‘Guidelines for implementation of Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control,’ World Health Organization, <http://www.who.int/fctc/guidelines/article_5_3.pdf> [Accessed 13 August 2016].
‘How to get Involved,’ Rx for Change UCSF, <http://documentslide.com/documents/how-to-get-involved.html> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
‘Interest Groups: Organizing to Influence,’ Annenberg Learner, <https://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_14/dia_14_topic.html> [Accessed 22 September 2016].
Menthol Cigarettes,’Smokefree.gov, <http://teen.smokefree.gov/Menthol-cigarettes.aspx> [Accessed 10 August 2016].
Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses, United States, 2000--2004,’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, November 2008, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm> [Accessed 10 August 2016].
‘State and Local Tobacco Tax Revenue, Selected Years 1977-2013,’ Tax Policy Center, 2016, <http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/statistics/tobacco-tax-revenue> [Accessed 10 September 2016].
‘The Global Tobacco Crisis: Tobacco- Global Agent of Death,’ World Health Organization, 2008, p.19, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_tobacco_crisis_2008.pdf?ua=1> [Accessed 10 August 2016].
‘The U.S. Commitment to Global Health: Recommendations for the Public and Private Sectors,’ The National Academies, 2009, p.1-2. <http://sites.nationalacademies.org/cs/groups/internationalsite/documents/webpage/international_053818pdf> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
‘Tobacco, Money to Congress (Incumbent Only) 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, & 2008,’ Center for Responsive Politics, <https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/summary.php?cycle=2004&ind=A02> [Accessed 16 September 2016].
‘Tobacco: Long-Term Contribution Trends (2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008),’ Center for Responsive Politics, <https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/totals.php?cycle=2016&ind=A02> [Accessed 17 September 2016].
‘Tobacco: Top Contributors to Federal Candidates, Parties, and Outside Groups (2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008),’ Center for Responsive Politics, <https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/contrib.php?ind=A02&Bkdn=DemRep&cycle=2004> [Accessed 17 September 2016].
‘Tobacco Industry,’ Encyclopedia, November 2006 <http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/tobacco-industry> [Accessed 12 September 2016].
‘Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee,’ Food and Drug Administration, <http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/default.htm> [Accessed 11 August 2016].
‘Tobacco Tax Revenue and Forecast in the United States from 2000 to 2021* (in billion U.S. dollars),’ The Statistics Portal, 2016, <https://www.statista.com/statistics/248964/revenues-from-tobacco-tax-and-forecast-in-the-us/> [Accessed 7 September 2016].
‘Top Export-Cigarettes 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 & 2007,’ Food and Agricultural Organization, <http://faostat.fao.org/site/342/default.aspx> [Accessed 17 September 2016].
‘Updated Status of the WHO FCTC: Ratification and Accession by Country,’ Framework Convention Alliance, 2009, p.9, <http://www.fctc.org/publications/other-fca-publications/doc_view/131-updated-status-of-the-who-fctc-ratification-and-accession-by-country> [Accessed 20 August 2016].
David, ‘A Review of the Global Tobacco Industry,’ Topforeignstocks, 14 November 2010, <http://topforeignstocks.com/2010/11/14/a-review-of-the-global-tobacco-industry/> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
Glantz, S. Mamudu, H.M. & Hammond, R. ‘Tobacco Industry attempts to counter the World Bank Report Curbing the Epidemic and Obstruct the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control,’ National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2008, <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662513/> [Accessed 17 September 2016].
Miller,L. ’Interest Groups,’ Collin College, <https://iws.collin.edu/lmiller/2305%20Powerpoint/13%20Interest%20Groups.pptx> [Accessed 20 September 2016].
Nedzhvetskaya, N. & Powell, J.A. ‘Who Do You Support,’ The harvard Crimson, 2011, <http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2011/4/11/tobacco-use-states-you/> [Accessed 20 September 2016].
Nichter et al, M. ‘The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, An Urgent Call for U.S. Ratification – Alcohol, Drug, and Tobacco Study Group (ADTSG),’ Medical Anthopology Quarterly, 2007, <http://www.medanthro.net/policy/prior-statements/tobacco-control/> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
Simms, J. ‘The Political Economy of the Tobacco Industry,’ Elon University, <http://org.elon.edu/ipe/simms.pdf> [Accessed 2 June 2016].
Simpson, M. ‘US Politics: Pressure Groups, Newtown and the NRA,’ Tutor2u, <http://www.tutor2u.net/politics/blog/revision-update-us-politics-pressure-groups-newtown-and-the-nra> [Accessed 2 September 2016].
Online interview with Chris Bostic, Deputy Director for Policy of FCA, 10 August 2016.
How to Cite
This journal uses Creative Commons license (CC BY). We allow readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The author must be aware that the article copyrights will be fully transferred to Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional only if the article is accepted to be published in the journal through signing of the Copyrights Transfer Agreement. Authors are allowed to resend their manuscript to another journal or intentionally withdraw the manuscript only if both parties (JIHI and Authors) have agreed on the related issue. Once the manuscript has been published, authors are allowed to use their published article under Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional copyrights.