Maritime Security in Indo-Pacific: Issues, Challenges, and Prospects
Keywords:maritime security, power competition, regional security, security dynamics, strategic environment.
This article elucidates the importance of Indo-Pacific in maritime security today. In the 21st century, the region has gained the world’s attention due to dramatic growth of China’s economy, steady rise of India, the more proactive regional countries, and the increasing oil exports to the region. With such importance, the region has been contested with powerful nations, such as China, India, Australia, Japan, the Southeast Asia nations, and even the United States. China’s increasing military presence in Indo-Pacific has been perceived as assertive by some of the regional countries. Meanwhile, the United States has become a more prominent actor in the region since the application of Rebalance policy in 2012. The paper discusses the issues, challenges and prospects of maritime security in Indo Pacific.
India Ministry of Defence. (2015). Ensuring Secure Seas: Indian Maritime Security Strategy. New Delhi: Indian Navy.
Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2017). Priority Policy for Development Cooperation FY 2017. Tokyo: International Cooperation Bureau.
SEAL of the President of the United States. (2017). National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington DC: The White House.
The State Council of the People's Republic of China. Full text of the Vision for Maritime Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative. The State Council of the People’s Republic of China. June 20, 2017. Accessed December 9, 2017. http://english.gov.cn/archive/publications/2017/06/20/content_281475691873460.htm
The United States Department of Defense. (2015) The Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy: Achieving U.S. National Security Objectives in a Changing Environment. Washington DC: Department of Defense.
USPACOM. (2016). United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) Guidance. Washington DC: Department of Defense
Xinhua. Full Text: China’s Military Strategy. The Information Office of the State Council. May 26, 2015. Accessed December 9, 2017. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2015-05/26/c_134271001_2.htm
Xinhua. Full text: China’s Policies on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation. The Information Office of the State Council. January 11, 2017. Accessed December 10, 2017. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2017-01/11/c_135973695.htm
Book with an author:
Hicks, Kathleen, Mark F. Cancian, and Michael Green. Asia-Pacific Rebalance 2025: Capabilities, Presence, and Partnerships. Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield, 2016.
Limaye, Satu. Weighted West, Focused on the Indian Ocean and Cooperating across the Indo-Pacific: The Indian Navy's New Maritime Strategy, Capabilities, and Diplomacy Arlington: CNA Analysis and Solutions, 2017.
Michel, David and Ricky Passarelli. Sea Change: Evolving Maritime Geopolitics in the Indo-Pacific Region. Washington DC: Stimson Center, 2014.
Turscanyi, Richard Q. Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea: Power Sources, Domestic Politics, and Reactive Foreign Policy. Prague: Springer International Publishing, 2017.
Adm. Hideki Kaneda (Retd.). (2016). Chain of Maritime Security Coalitions. DPG Conference Reports, Vol.1 Issue 1, 55-66
Garge, Ramanand. (2017). Maritime Outreach as Part of India’s ‘Act East’ Policy. Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs, Vol. 9 Issue 3, 150-167. doi: 10.1080/18366503.2017.1285217
Krupakar, Jayana. (2017). China’s Naval Base(s) in the Indian Ocean – Signs of a Maritime Grand Strategy? Strategic Analysis, Vol. 41, Issue 3, 207-222. doi: 10.1080/09700161.2017.1296622
Mishra, Vivek. (2016). US Power and Influence in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Decline of ‘Alliance Mutuality’. Strategic Analysis, Vol. 40 Issue 3, 159-172. doi: 10.1080/09700161.2016.1156251
Nelson, Eric Shea. (2012). Maritime Terrorism and Piracy: Existing and Potential Threats. Global Security Studies, Vol. 3 Issue 1, 15-28.
Ou, Si-fu. (2014). China's A2AD and Its Geographic Perspective. Asia Pacific Research Forum, 81-124.
World Wide Web:
CFR. Tensions in East China Sea. Council on Foreign Relations. Updated December 8, 2017. Accessed December 9, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/interactives/global-conflict-tracker#!/conflict/tensions-in-the-east-china-sea
CFR. Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea. Council on Foreign Relations. Updated December 7, 2017. Accessed December 8, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/interactives/global-conflict-tracker#!/conflict/territorial-disputes-in-the-south-china-sea
China Power Team. How much trade transits the South China Sea? China Power. August 2, 2017. Updated October 27, 2017. Accessed December 8, 2017. https://chinapower.csis.org/much-trade-transits-south-china-sea/
CSIS. Island Tracker: China. AMTI CSIS. December 13, 2016. Accessed December 8, 2017. https://amti.csis.org/island-tracker/chinese-occupied-features/
Dillow, Clay. Military Nightmare Scenario Brewing in the East China Sea. CNBC. April 4, 2017. Accessed December 8, 2017. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/04/world-war-iii-nightmare-scenario-brewing-in-the-east-china-sea.html
Graham, Euan. The Hague Tribunal’s South China Sea Ruling: Empty Provocation or Slow-Burning Influence? Council on Foreign Relations. August 18, 2016. Accessed December 8, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/councilofcouncils/global_memos/p38227.
Ng, Teddy & Shi Jiangtao. Chinese navy’s live-fire drill may be warning shot to India amid ongoing Doklam stand-off. South China Morning Post. August 26, 2017. Accessed December 11, 2017. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2108410/chinese-navys-live-fire-drill-may-be-warning-shot-india.
Singh, Abhijit. The Changing Face of Maritime Terrorism. ASPI The Strategist. March 3, 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/changing-face-maritime-terrorism/
Parameswaran, Prashanth. What Trump’s TPP Withdrawal Means for US Asia Policy. The Diplomat. January 24, 2017. Accessed December 13, 2017. https://thediplomat.com/2017/01/what-trumps-tpp-withdrawal-means-for-us-asia-policy
Pandit, Rajat. Amid border stand-off, Chinese ships on prowl in Indian Ocean. The Times of India. July 4, 2017. Accessed December 11, 2017. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/amid-border-stand-off-chinese-ships-on-prowl-in-indian-ocean/articleshow/59432702.cms
Pant, Harsh V. Take Note: Asia’s Quad is Back. The Diplomat. November 10, 2017. Accessed December 13, 2017. https://thediplomat.com/2017/11/take-note-asias-quad-is-back/
Scott, David. Chinese Maritime Strategy for the Indian Ocean. Center for International Maritime Security. November 28, 2017. Accessed December 9, 2017. http://cimsec.org/chinese-maritime-strategy-indian-ocean/34771
Villar & Hamilton. The Strait of Malacca, a key oil trade chokepoint, links the Indian and Pacific Oceans. EIA. August 11, 2017. Accesed December 8, 2017 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=32452
Waqas, Muhammad. China, Japan Clash over East China Sea. Oil&Gas Financial Journal. ,December 17, 2015. Accessed December 12, 2017. http://www.ogfj.com/articles/print/volume-12/issue-12/features/china-japan-clash-over-east-china-sea.html
Zhang, Xunchao. Becoming a Maritime Power? – The First Chinese Base in the Indian Ocean. Center for International Maritime Security. August 8, 2015. Accessed December 12, 2017. http://cimsec.org/becoming-a-maritime-power-the-first-chinese-base-in-the-indian-ocean/18200
This journal uses Creative Commons license (CC BY). We allow readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The author must be aware that the article copyrights will be fully transferred to Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional only if the article is accepted to be published in the journal. Authors are allowed to resend their manuscript to other journal or intentionally withdraw the manuscript only if both parties (JIHI and Authors) have agreed on the related issue. Once the manuscript has published, authors are allowed to use their published article under Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional copyrights.