Neoliberalisme Versus Kebijakan Selektif Kemigrasian : Korelasi Komponen "International Openness" dengan Rezim Bebas Visa di Indonesia

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26593/jihi.v17i2.3609.153-171

Abstract

Sejak penerapan kebijakan bebas visa wisata di Indonesia pada tahun 1983 sampai dengan tahun 2017 terlihat dominasi sektor kepariwisataan (tourism) di dalam proses pengambilan keputusan kebijakan bebas visa. Rasional utama desakan adanya kebijakan ini belakangan terlihat adanya unsur pengaruh the Travel and Tourism Competitive Index (TTCI) yang dikeluarkan oleh lembaga dunia the World Economic Forum (WEF) dan the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) untuk mendongkrak rangking Indonesia di mata dunia Indonesia dalam hal sektor kepariwisataan. Dan salah satu komponen dari alat ukur persaingan kompetisi internasional tersebut adalah international openness, dengan penilaian bahwa semakin banyak suatu negara menghilangkan restriksi untuk memasuki suatu negara maka semakin tinggi komponen penilaian TTCI. Tulisan ini secara kritis menilai bahwa perluasan kebijakan bebas visa, sudah bergeser dari titik keseimbangan kebijakan selektif keimigrasian Indonesia. Meskipun diakui bahwa ada kontribusi dari kebijakan bebas ini, namun secara makro menggiring ke dalam “perangkap” instrumen internasional yang akan merugikan kepentingan Indonesia. Bahkan analisis di dalam tulisan ini ditemukan bahwa tidak ada korelasi yang signifikan antara komponen international openness dengan peningkatan daya saing pariwisata secara agregat. Oleh karena itu, dengan menggunakan beberapa pendekatan teori ekonomi politik internasional, dan teori pembangunan internasional, tulisan ini melakukan studi kritis terhadap eksistensi pengaruh internasional terhadap kebijakan selektif keimigrasian di Indonesia, serta langkah-langkah konkret yang perlu dilakukan segera oleh Pemerintah Indonesia agar dapat terhindar dari jebakan angka dan statistik dalam berkompetisi di era neoliberal saat ini.

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Published

2021-11-09