Jaringan Advokasi Transnasional: Strategi Greenpeace dalam Menolak Rencana Pengeboran Shell di Kutub Utara

Authors

  • Yanuar Albertus Universitas Airlangga

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26593/jihi.v17i2.4063.239-260

Keywords:

Advokasi, Greenpeace, Shell, Transnational Advocacy Network, Stakeholder,

Abstract

Tulisan ini membahas bagaimana Greenpeace, sebagai organisasi non-pemerintah, memengaruhi rencana pengeboran lepas pantai Shell di wilayah Kutub Utara. Greenpeace adalah salah satu aktor utama yang menentang rencana Shell untuk memulai pengeboran di laut Arktik. Proyek ini muncul seiring dengan adanya penelitian yang menunjukkan bahwa Kutub Utara mempunyai porsi yang signifikan dari keseluruhan cadangan minyak dan gas alam dunia. Rencana pengeboran tersebut memicu penolakan karena meningkatnya kekhawatiran tentang risiko kegiatan pengeboran lepas pantai di Arktik. Setelah sekitar tiga tahun advokasi, Greenpeace berhasil memaksa Shell menghentikan rencana pengeborannya. Analisis penulis kemudian mencoba menganalisis bagaimana Greenpeace mencapai tujuan advokasinya dalam menghentikan rencana pengeboran Shell. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, penulis menggunakan jaringan advokasi transnasional (TAN) sebagai kerangka pemikiran penulis dalam menganalisis bagaimana Greenpeace memanfaatkan jaringannya untuk melakukan advokasi internasional. Data dalam penelitian ini dikumpulkan dari sumber primer dan sekunder, serta dianalisis dengan cara kualitatif. Temuan penulis kemudian menunjukkan bahwa Greenpeace telah menggunakan setiap taktik dalam strategi TAN untuk mempengaruhi kebijakan Shell, yang mencakup politik informasi, politik simbolik, leverage politics, dan juga politik akuntabilitas. Penulis kemudian menyimpulkan bahwa keempat taktik inilah yang kemudian berhasil mendorong Shell untuk menghentikan rencana pengeboran lepas pantai di kawasan Kutub Utara.

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Published

2021-11-09