Pengaruh Shift Kerja Terhadap Kelelahan dan Performansi Pengendali Kereta Api Indonesia


  • Lauditta Irianti Institut Teknologi Nasional Bandung



The purpose of this study is  to evaluate the effect of shift work on level of fatigue and  performance of railway controller. Seventeen participants are the railway controller of Bandung Station. Fatigue was measured using subjective questionaire Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and performance was measured using Psychomotor Vigilance Task based on reaction time.  Friedman test and Bonferonni-Dunn test were used to process data. Statistical analysis indicates there was significant difference level of fatigue and human performance between shift work. Fatigue occurs at sleepiness, phsysical discomfort and lack of motivation dimensions, while performance occurs at mean 1/RT, fastest 1/RT and slowest 1/RT (P < 0,10). %. The highest fatigue and the worst performance occurs after night shift. After night shift, the level of fatigue increased about 37% to 162%, meanwhile performance were decreased about 3% to 11%. Although there were significant difference of level fatigue, the average scores are below 1 (score 0-7). This result indicates that the fatigue of controllers  are very low.  Although maybe is not really necessary to redesign shift work system, but working hours on each shift still need to be concerned. 

Author Biography

Lauditta Irianti, Institut Teknologi Nasional Bandung

Departemen Jurusan Teknik Industri

Institut Teknologi Nasional Bandung


Amin, M.M. (2006). Influence of Circadian Rhythm on The Physical and Mental Perfomance. Thesis. Louisiana State University, Lousiana

Ashberg, E. (1998). Perceived Fatigue Related to Work. ISBN 91-7135-830-5.

Ashberg, E. (2000). Dimension Of Fatigue In Different Working Populations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol (41), 231-241.

Baldwin, C. M., Kapur, V. K., Holberg, C. J., Rosen, C., dan Nieto, F. J. (2004). Associations Between Gender and Measures of Daytime Somnolance in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep, Vol.27 (2).

Basner, M., Mollicone, D., dan Dinges, D. F. (2011). Validity And Senstivity Of A Brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (Pvt-B) To Total And Partial Sleep Deprivation. Acta Austronatica, Vol. (69), 949-959

Basner, M.,dan Dinges, D.F. (2011). Maximizing Sensitivity Of The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) to Sleep Loss. University of Pennsylania School of Medicine, Vol. 34 (5)

Blatter, K., Graw, P., Munch, M., Knoblauch, V., Justice, A.W. dan Cajochen, C. (2006). Gender And Age Differences In Psychomotor Vigilance Performance Under Differential Sleep Pressure Condition. Behaviourial Brain Research, Vol.168, 312-317

Barbey, A., Reeves, G., Arnulf, I., Holmes, A. (2007). Managing Fatigue in the Workplace: A Guide For Oil and Gas Industry Supervisors and Occupational Health Practitioners. London, UK : IPIECA and OGP.

Bridger, R.S. (2008). Introduction to Ergonomics (3rd ed.). London, UK : Taylor dan Francis Group.

Cotrim, T., Carvalhais, J., Neto, C., Teles, J., Noriega P. dan Rebelo, F. (2017). Determinants Of Sleepiness At Work Among Raikway Control Workers. Applied Ergonomics, 293-300

Coffey, L.C., Skipper Jr, J.K., Jung R.N, F.D. (2006). Nurses And Shift Work : Effects On Job Performance And Job-Related Stress, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol.13 (2), 245-254.

Demsar, J. (2006). Statistical Comparisons Of Classifiers Over Multiple Data Sets. Journal of Machine Learning Research, Vol.7, 1-30.

Dorrian, J., Baulk. S. D., dan Dawson, D. (2011). Work Hours, Workload, Sleep And Fatigue In Australian Rail Industry Employees. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.42, 202-209.

Elfering,A., Grebner,S., dan Haller, M. (2012). Railway-Controller-Perceived Mental Workload, Cognitive Failure And Risky Commuting, Ergonomics, Vol, 55 (12),. 1463-1475

Gawron, V.J. (2008). Human Performance, Workload and Situasional Awareness Measures Handbook, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.

Gerber, M., Hartmann, T., Brand, S., Trachsler, E. D., dan Puhse, U. (2010). The relationship between shift work, perceived stress, sleep and health in swiss police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 1167-1175.

Goswani, R., Jena. R. K., dan Mohapatra, B. B. (2012). Effect Of Shift Work On Health: A Review. International Journal Research in Management, Vol.3 (2), 2249-5908.

Grandjean, E. P., Wotzka, G., Schaad, R., dan Gilgen. A. (2007). Fatigue And Stress In Air Traffic Controller. Ergonomics, Vol.14 (1), 159-165.

Graw, P., Krauchi, K., Knoblauch, V., Wirz-Justice, A., dan Cajochen, C. (2004). Circadian And Wake-Dependent Modulation Of Fastetst And Slowest Reaction Times During The Psychomotro Vigilance Task. Physiology & Behaviour, Vol. 80, 695-701

Gunzelmnaa, G., Gross, J.B., Gluck, K.A., dan Dinges, D.F. (2009). Sleep Deprivation And Sustained Attention Performance : Integrating Mathematical And Cognitive Modelling. Cognitive Science, Vol.33, 880-910.

Harma,M., Sallinen, M., Ranta, R., Mutanen, P., dan Muller, K.(2002). The Effect Of An Irregular Shift System On Sleepiness At Work In Train Drivers And Railway Traffic Controller. J. Sleep Res, Vol.11, 141-151. [Wilet Online Library].

Health dan Safety Executive. (2006). Managing Shiftwork, Health and Safety Guidance. [Online Book].

Hesselink, J. K., Leede, J.D., dan Goudswaard, A. (2010). Effect Of The New Fast Forward Rotating Five-Shift Roster At A Dutch Steel Company.Ergonomics, Vol.53 (6), 727-738.

Irianti, L., Geovania, A., dan Iridiastadi, H. (2015). Pengaruh Shift Kerja Terhadap Stres Kerja Pengendali (Controller) Kereta Api Indonesia. Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem dan Industri, Vol.2(4), 39-45

Jackson, M.L., Croft, R.J., Kennedy, G.A., Owens, K., dan Howard, M.E. (2013). Cognitive Component Of Simulated Driving Performance : Sleep Loss Effects And Predictors. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol.50, 438- 444.

Jay, S. M., Dawson, D., Ferguson, S. A., dan Lamond, D. (2008). Driver Fatigue Extended Rail Operations. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.39, 623-620.

Johansson. S., Ytterberg, C., Back, B., Holmqvist, L.W., dan Koch, L. V. (2008). The Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory In People With Multiple Sclerosis. J Rehabil Med, Vol.40, 737-743.

Johns, M. W. (2009). What Is Excessive Daytime Sleepiness?. In Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Effects And Treatment. Australia : Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Kaida, K., Takahashi, M., Akestedt, T., Nakata, A., Otsuka, T., Haratani, T., dan Fukasawa, K. (2006). Validation Of Karolinska Sleepness Scale Against Performance And EEG Variables. Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol.117, 1574–1581.

Kazemi, R., Haidarimoghadam, R., Motamedzadeh, M, Golmohamadi, R., Soltanian, A., dan Zoghipaydar, M.R. (2016). Effects Of Shift Work On Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, And Sleepiness Among Petrochemical Control Room Operator. Journal of Circadian Rhythms , Vol.14 (1), 1-5

Kementerian Perhubungan. Statistik Perhubungan, [Online], Diakses pada 23 Maret 2017, dari

Knauth, P.,dan Hornberger, S. (2003). Preventive And Compensatory Measures For Shift Workers. Occupational Medicine, Vol.l (53), 109-116.

Leung, A.W.S., Chan,C. C. G., dan He, J.(2004). Structural Stability And Reliability Of Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory Among Chinese Vdt Workers. Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 35, 233-241.

Loh, S., Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Roach, G., dan Dawsn, D. (2004). The Validity Of Physchomotor Vigilance Tasks Of Less Than 10 Minutes Duration. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, Vol. 36 (2), 339-346.

Muhammad, I. (2009). Hubungan Antara Shift, Umur, dan Masa Kerja dengan Stres Kerja Pada Penjaga Jalan Perlintasan Kereta Api di Yogyakarta. (Tesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2009) diakses dari

Narciso, F.V., Barela, J.A., Aguiar, S.A., Carvalho, A.N.A., Tufik, S., dan de Mello, M.T. (2016). Effects Of Shift Work On The Postural And Psychomotor Performance Of Night Workers.Plos ONE, Vol. 11 (4), e0151609

Newson, J.(2006). Post Hoc Tests. Portland State University.

Nurussakinah, A., Puspitasari, N.B. & Rumita R. (2014). Pengaruh Beban Kerja Mental dan Kelelahan Kerja Terhadap Kesalaha Operator Pengendali Kereta DAOP IV Semarang. Industrial Engineering Online Jurnal, Vol. 3 (1).

Ozdemir P.G., Selvi Y., Ozkol H., Aydin A., dan Tuluce Y. (2013). The Influence Of Shift Work On Cognitive Fuctions And Oxidative Stress. Psychiatry Research,Vol. 210, 1219-1225.

Park, J.(2007). Work Stress And Job Performance. [Katalog], 75-001-XIE. Kanada.

Pratiwi, C.F. (2016). Hubungan Shift Kerja dengan Kelelahan Kerja Pada Pekerja Bagian Daily Check di PT. Kereta Api Daerah Operasi VI Yogyakarta DIPO Kereta Solo Balapan. (Tugas Akhir, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 2016). Diakses dari

Rameshbabu, A., Reddy, D. M., dan Fleming, R.(2012). Correlates Of Negative Physical Health In Call Center Shift Workers. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.44, 350-354.

Ryan, B., Wilson, J. R., Sharples, S., Kenvyn, F., dan Clarke, T.(2008). Rail Signallers Assessment Of Their Satisfaction With Different Shift Work System. Ergonomics,Vol.51 (11), 1656-1671.

Stoohs, R.A., Phillip, P., Andries, D., Finlayson, E.V., dan Guilleminault, C.(2009).Reaction Times Performance In Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Versus Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Sleep Medicine, Vol. 10, 1000-1004.

Titova, O.E., Lindberg, E., Elmstahl, S., Lind, L., Schioth, H.B., dan Benedict, C. (2016). Association Between Shift Work History And Performance On The Trail Making Test Ini Middle-Aged And Elderly Humans : The Epihealth Study. Neurobiology of Aging.

Tucker, A.M., Whitney, P., Balenky, G., Hinson, J.M., dan Van Dongen H.P. (2010). Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Dissociated Components of Executive Functioning. Sleep, Vol. 33 (1), 47-57.

Ummul, S.,dan Kameswara, R. K. (2012). Shift Work And Fatigue. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology(IOSR-JESTFT), Vol.1 (3)

Williamson, A., Lombardi, D. A., Folkard, S., Stutts, J., Courtney, T.K., dan Connor, J.L. (2009). The Link Between Fatigue And Safety: Accidents Analysis And Prevention. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol.43 (2), 498-515.

Wilkinson, R., Allison, S., Feeney, M., dan Zaminska, Z. (2007). Alertness Of Night Nurses: Two Shift Systems Compared. Ergonomics, Vol. 32 (3), 281-292.

Yogi, J dan Hirkarni, M. (2016). Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Audio-Visual Reaction Time in Resident Doctors- a Measure of Task Performance. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research, Vol. 5 (2), 29-35